Simultaneous Authentication of Equals
WPA3 is the latest version of Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), which is a suite of protocols and technologies that provide authentication and encryption for Wi-Fi networks.
WPA3 leverages Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) to provide stronger protections for users against password guessing attempts by third parties. SAE employs a discrete logarithm cryptography to perform an efficient exchange in a way that performs mutual authentication using a password that is probably resistant to an offline dictionary attack. An offline dictionary attack is where an adversary attempts to determine a network password by trying possible passwords without further network interaction.
WPA3-Personal brings better protection to individual users by providing more robust password-based authentication making the brute-force dictionary attack much more difficult and time-consuming, while WPA3-Enterprise provides higher grade security protocols for sensitive data networks.
When the client connects to the access point, they perform an SAE exchange. If successful, they will each create a cryptographically strong key, from which the session key will be derived. Basically a client and access point goes into phases of commit and then confirm. Once there is a commitment, the client and access point can then go into the confirm states each time there is a session key to be generated. The method uses forward secrecy, where an intruder could crack a single key, but not all of the other keys.
Home SSIDs configured using OEAP GUI does not support WPA3 security in Cisco IOS-XE 17.6 and 17.7 releases.